Salesforce Lightning Tutorial For Beginners

Hello Everyone, in this post I will show you, how you can build your first lightning component. Let’s begin.

What is Salesforce Lightning?

Lightning includes the Lightning Component Framework and some exciting tools for developers. Lightning makes it easier to build responsive applications for any device. Lightning components accelerate development and app performance.

Now you are having an idea of what is Lightning. Let’s move forward.

What Is the Lightning Component Framework?

The Lightning Component framework is a UI framework for developing web apps for mobile and desktop devices. It’s a modern framework for building single-page applications with dynamic, responsive user interfaces for Lightning Platform apps. It uses JavaScript on the client-side and Apex on the server-side.

Lightning Component Framework

The client-side refers to the UI and the Server-side refers to the backend. It is really important that you need to know what is Client-side and Server-side are.  If you are confused about these, don’t worry maybe will be covering them in the upcoming post.

Now let’s understand what is Component attributes in the Lightning component.

Component Attributes

Component attributes are like member variables on a class in Apex. They are typed fields that are set on a specific instance of a component and can be referenced from within the component’s markup using an expression syntax.

<aura:attribute name="whom" type="String" default="world"/>
    Hello {!v.whom}!

Here the output is:- Hello world.

Expression

Salesforce lightning Expression allows you to make calculations and access property values and is evaluated and dynamically replaced when the component is evaluated.

Syntax is {!<expression>}

There are other types of Basic types, Standard and Custom Object Types, Collection Types, and Other types of attributes we can write in Aura, below are the example, and refer to the official documentation of Salesforce for more.

<aura:attribute name="showDetail" type="Boolean" />

<aura:attribute name="startDate" type="Date" />

<aura:attribute name="acct" type="Account" />

<aura:attribute name="expense" type="Expense__c" />

<aura:attribute name="colorPalette" type="List" default="['red', 'green', 'blue']" />

Yay!! Now you will be knowing what is an attribute, expression, collection, etc. Now let’s built a lightning application using these. let’s understand first, what is a lightning bundle?. There is a total of 8 parts included in the bundle, in that I will tell you 4 important parts.

  1. Component
  2. Controller
  3. Helper
  4. Apex Controller

Here first 3 will be working on the Client-side server and the apex works as a server-side. Uff!! Hope you are with me. Now let’s create a lightning application. we are creating a Calculator application, in that, I will show you different types of implementation.

  • Lightning Component without the attribute.
  • Lightning Component with attribute.
  • Lightning component with Apex controller.

Lightning Component without the attribute.

To create lightning Component ->Goto-> Developer console ->New->Choose Lightning Component -> Give Name -> Click Submit.

To create lightning Application ->Goto-> Developer Console -> New -> Choose Lightning Application -> Give Name ->Click Submit.

In this example let’s understand how to create a lightning component without using an attribute tag, how to use aura:id, and how to get and find the value of aura:id.

Calculator.cmp

<aura:component>
    <div>
        <B> Calculator </B>
    </div><br/>
    <div>
        <ui:inputnumber label="First Number" aura:id="FrstNum"/>
    </div><br/>
    <div>
        <ui:inputnumber label="Second Number" aura:id="SecNum"/>
    </div><br/>
    <div>
        <ui:inputnumber label="Total:" aura:id="sum"/>
    </div><br/>
    <div>
        <ui:button label="Calcualte" press="{!c.sum}" class="button"/>
    </div>
</aura:component>

Calculator.js

({
	sum : function(component, event, helper) {
        //To get the value entered in the place of FirstNumber.
        //we are using find method,and using get method to get the value.
        //Inside find we need to add aura:id
		var frstNumber = component.find("FrstNum").get("v.value");
        console.log("Entered First Number is :" +frstNumber);
        
        var SecndNumber = component.find("SecNum").get("v.value");
        console.log("Entered Second Number is :" +SecndNumber);
        
        var ResultSum = component.find("sum");
        //Calculating sum and setting to the variable and assigning by using set.
        //we are assigning for aura:id so we are using v.value.
       	ResultSum.set("v.value",frstNumber+SecndNumber);
        
	}
})

Calculator.app

<aura:application>
	<c:Calculator></c:Calculator/>
</aura:application>

Lightning Component with attribute.

In this let’s understand how to create an attribute tag in the aura and how to assign value and how to get a value from it.

Calculator.cmp

<aura:component>
    <aura:attribute name="Fnumber" type="Integer"/>
     <aura:attribute name="Snumber" type="Integer"/>
     <aura:attribute name="Totalnumber" type="Integer"/>
    <div>
        <B> Calculator </B>
    </div><br/>
    <div>
        <ui:inputnumber label="First Number" value="{!v.Fnumber}"/>
    </div><br/>
    <div>
        <ui:inputnumber label="Second Number"  value="{!v.Snumber}"/>
    </div><br/>
    <div>
        <ui:inputnumber label="Total:" value="{!v.Totalnumber}"/>
    </div><br/>
    <div>
        <ui:button label="Calcualte" press="{!c.sum}" class="button"/>
    </div>
</aura:component>

Calculator.js

({
    sum : function(component, event, helper) {
        //Get the Value that being entered in first Number
        var frstNumber = component.get("v.Fnumber");
        console.log("Entered First Number is :" +frstNumber);
        //Get the Value that being entered in Second Number
        var SecndNumber = component.get("v.Snumber");
        console.log("Entered Second Number is :" +SecndNumber);
        //calculated the  sum and assigning to attribute by using set.
        component.set("v.Totalnumber",frstNumber+SecndNumber);
        
    }
})

Calculator.app

<aura:application>
	<c:Calculator></c:Calculator/>
</aura:application>

Lightning component with Apex controller.

In this let’s understand how to invoke apex controller, how to call class in CMP file, and how to pass a parameter to apex method from aura.

Calcualtor.cmp

<!--Adding Apex class name in controller-->
<aura:component controller="Calculator" >
    <aura:attribute name="Fnumber" type="Integer"/>
    <aura:attribute name="Snumber" type="Integer"/>
    <aura:attribute name="Totalnumber" type="Integer"/>
    <div>
        <B> Calculator </B>
    </div><br/>
    <div>
        <ui:inputnumber label="First Number" value="{!v.Fnumber}"/>
    </div><br/>
    <div>
        <ui:inputnumber label="Second Number"  value="{!v.Snumber}"/>
    </div><br/>
    <div>
        <ui:inputnumber label="Total:" value="{!v.Totalnumber}"/>
    </div><br/>
    <div>
        <ui:button label="Calcualte" press="{!c.sum}" class="button"/>
    </div>
</aura:component>

Calcualtor.js

({
    sum : function(component, event, helper) {
        //Get the Value that being entered in first Number
        var frstNumber = component.get("v.Fnumber");
        console.log("Entered First Number is :" +frstNumber);
        //Get the Value that being entered in Second Number
        var SecndNumber = component.get("v.Snumber");
        console.log("Entered Second Number is :" +SecndNumber);
        //Calling Apex method[i.e Server Side]
        var action = component.get('c.calculateSum');
        //Paasing parameter to the apex method
        action.setParams({
            "fnumber" : frstNumber,
            "Snumber" : SecndNumber});
        action.setCallback(this, function(response){
            var state = response.getState();
            //Checking the state
            if(state === "SUCCESS"){
                //Returns and set the value from the apex to attribute
                component.set("v.Totalnumber",response.getReturnValue());
            }
        });
         $A.enqueueAction(action);
    }
 })

Calculator.apxc

public class Calculator {
@AuraEnabled
    public static decimal calculateSum(decimal fnumber, decimal Snumber){
        decimal sum =fnumber+Snumber;
        return sum;
    }
}

Calcualtor.app

<aura:application>
	<c:Calculator></c:Calculator/>
</aura:application>

Output

Build calcualtor in aura
Note:- All three component gives the same output and UI. For proper alignment, you can use CSS, here we have not used it.

Conclusion

Now we have successfully built three lightning Components. Isn’t interesting. That’s all for this post, in the next post we can learn to create records and display the records. If you have liked this blog post please do share it with your loved ones.

Also Read: – How to Delete Multiple Records Using Checkbox In Lightning Component.

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